Escherichia coli is one of the most notorious pathogens for its ability to adapt, colonize, and proliferate in different habitats through a multitude of acquired virulence factors. Its presence affects the food-processing industry and causes food poisoning, being also a major economic burden for the food, agriculture, and health sectors. Bacteriophages are emerging as an appealing strategy to mitigate bacterial pathogens, including specific E. coli pathovars, without exerting a deleterious effect on humans and animals. This review globally analyzes the applied research on E. coli phages for veterinary, food, and human use. It starts by describing the pathogenic E. coli pathotypes and their relevance in human and animal context. The idea that phages can be used as a One Health approach to control and interrupt the transmission routes of pathogenic E. coli is sustained through an exhaustive revision of the recent literature. The emerging phage formulations, genetic engineering and encapsulation technologies are also discussed as a means of improving phage-based control strategies, with a particular focus on E. coli pathogens.